Drug Addiction

Drag can be understood as a kind of drug. in addiction we are saying that another substance,which is a drug that can be used to stimulate an unhealthy person to get into the body.

The youth of today are over thinking their precious lives at an early age, brown sugar, opium, cannabis sleep tablets what substances drug, In Fact, many such drugs are currently killing young people and running their lives at an early age such addicts behave very perversely and create unrest in society, notoriously unpleasant acts.

Providing appropriate Treatment to such addicts can help them avoid these evils.

Alcohol Addiction

Each person has a percentage of the body to increase immunity 5% alchol can be obtainined Via vitamin,table fruit fiber or vegitables.

Eg:Alchol,such as wine and beer,is legally manufactured and marketed as a painkiller. it is a policy that has been prohibited to be consumed in many countries to their advantage.alchol is a health hazard,in some states, it is good for people to have good health

Smoking Addiction

Smoking, the act of inhaling and exhaling the fumes of burning plant material. A variety of plant materials are smoked, including marijuana and hashish, but the act is most commonly associated with tobacco as smoked in a cigarette, cigar, or pipe. Tobacco contains nicotine, an alkaloid that is addictive and can have both stimulating and tranquilizing psychoactive effects. Smoking soon spread to other areas and today is widely practiced around the world despite medical, social, and religious arguments against it.

Nicotine is the addictive drug in tobacco smoke that causes people who smoke to continue to smoke.

Along with nicotine, people who smoke inhale about 7,000 other chemicals in cigarette smoke. Many of these chemicals come from burning tobacco leaf. Some of these compounds are chemically active and trigger profound and damaging changes in the body.

Tobacco smoke contains over 70 known cancer-causing chemicals. Smoking harms nearly every organ in the body, causing many diseases and reducing health in general.

Dangerous chemicals in tobacco smoke
Highly damaging components of tobacco smoke include:

Effects of smoking tobacco on the body
Inhaling tobacco smoke causes damage to many of the body’s organs and systems.

Effects of smoking on the respiratory system
The effects of tobacco smoke on the respiratory system include:
• irritation of the trachea (windpipe) and larynx (voice box)
• reduced lung function and breathlessness due to swelling and narrowing of the lung airways and excess mucus in the lung passages
• impairment of the lungs’ clearance system, leading to the build-up of poisonous substances, which results in lung irritation and damage
• increased risk of lung infection and symptoms such as coughing and wheezing
• permanent damage to the air sacs of the lungs.

Effects of smoking on the circulatory system
The effects of tobacco smoke on the circulatory system include:
• raised blood pressure and heart rate
• constriction (tightening) of blood vessels in the skin, resulting in a drop in skin temperature
• less oxygen carried by the blood during exercise
• ‘stickier’ blood, which is more prone to clotting
• damage to the lining of the arteries, which is thought to be a contributing factor to atherosclerosis (the build-up of fatty deposits on the artery walls)
• reduced blood flow to extremities (fingers and toes)
• increased risk of stroke and heart attack due to blockages of the blood supply.

Effects of smoking on the immune system
The effects of tobacco smoke on the immune system include:
• greater susceptibility to infections such as pneumonia and influenza
• more severe and longer-lasting illnesses
• lower levels of protective antioxidants (such as vitamin C), in the blood.

Effects of smoking on the musculoskeletal system
The effects of tobacco smoke on the musculoskeletal system include:
• tightening of certain muscles
• reduced bone density.

Effects of smoking on the sexual organs
The effects of tobacco smoke on the male body include an increased risk for:
• lower sperm count
• higher percentage of deformed sperm
• genetic damage to sperm
• impotence, which may be due to the effects of smoking on blood flow and damage to the blood vessels of the penis.

The effects of tobacco smoke on the female body include:
• reduced fertility, menstrual cycle irregularities, or absence of menstruation
• menopause reached one or two years earlier
• increased risk of cancer of the cervix
• greatly increased risk of stroke and heart attack if the person who smokes is aged over 35 years and taking the oral contraceptive pill.

Other effects of smoking on the body
Other effects of tobacco smoke on the body include:
• irritation and inflammation of the stomach and intestines
• increased risk of painful ulcers along the digestive tract
• reduced ability to smell and taste
• premature wrinkling of the skin
• higher risk of blindness
• gum disease (periodontitis).

Effects of smoking on babies
The effects of maternal smoking on an unborn baby include:
• increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth and premature birth
• weaker lungs
• low birth weight, which may have a lasting effect of the growth and development of children. Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes in adulthood
• increased risk of cleft palate and cleft lip
• increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Passive smoking (exposure of the non-smoking mother to second-hand smoke) can also harm the fetus.
If a parent continues to smoke during their baby’s first year of life, the child has an increased risk of ear infections, respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia and bronchitis, sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) and meningococcal disease.

Diseases caused by long-term smoking
A person who smokes throughout their life is at high risk of developing a range of potentially lethal diseases, including:
• cancer of the lung, mouth, nose, larynx, tongue, nasal sinus, oesophagus, throat, pancreas, bone marrow (myeloid leukaemia), kidney, cervix, ovary, ureter, liver, bladder, bowel and stomach
• lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which includes obstructive bronchiolitis and emphysema
• heart disease and stroke
• ulcers of the digestive system
• osteoporosis and hip fracture
• poor blood circulation in feet and hands, which can lead to pain and, in severe cases, gangrene and amputation
• type 2 diabetes
• rheumatoid arthritis.

Steps to Manage Quit Day
You’ve decided to quit smoking. Congratulations! Your first day without cigarettes can be difficult. Here are five steps you can take to handle your quit day and gain confidence about staying quit.

Stick to Your Plan
Revisiting your quit plan can make your quit day easier—it will help you stay focused, confident, and motivated to quit and stay quit. If you haven’t made a quit plan yet, it’s not too late. Build a personalized quit plan now.
Remember: There is no single quit smoking plan that will work for everyone. Be honest about your needs. If using nicotine replacement therapy is right for you and part of your plan, be sure to start using it first thing in the morning.

2. Get Support
You don’t need to rely on willpower alone to be smoke free. There are things you can do that will help you get through your quit day.
• Lean on positive people. Tell your family and friends about your quit day. Ask them for support, especially on your first few days and weeks of being smoke free. They can help you get through the rough spots.
• Visit Smoke free on social media. Grow your support network and stay connected.

3. Stay Busy
Keeping busy is a great way to stay smoke free on your quit day. Being busy will help you keep your mind off smoking and distract you from cravings. Think about trying some of these activities:
• Exercise.
• Get out of the house for a walk.
• Chew gum or hard candy.
• Keep your hands busy with a pen or toothpick, or play a game in the Quit Guide app.
• Drink lots of water.
• Relax with deep breathing.
• Go to a movie.
• Spend time with non-smoking friends and family.
• Go to dinner at your favorite smoke free restaurant.

4. Avoid Smoking Triggers
Triggers are the people, places, things, and situations that set off your urge to smoke. On your quit day, try to avoid your smoking triggers. Here are some tips to help you outsmart some common smoking triggers:
• Throw away your cigarettes, lighters, and ashtrays if you haven’t already.
• Avoid caffeine, which can make you feel jittery. Try drinking water instead.
• Spend time with non-smokers.
• Go to places where smoking isn’t allowed.
• Get plenty of rest and eat healthy. Being tired can trigger you to smoke.
• Change your routine to avoid the things you might associate with smoking.

5. Stay Positive
Quitting smoking is difficult. It happens one minute…one hour…one day at a time. Try not to think of quitting as forever. Pay attention to today and the time will add up. It helps to stay positive. Your quit day might not be perfect, but all that matters is that you don’t smoke—not even one puff. Reward yourself for being smoke free for 24 hours. You deserve it. And if you’re not feeling ready to quit today, set a quit date that makes sense for you. It’s OK if you need a few more days to prepare to quit smoking.

Your doctor may ask you questions or have you fill out a questionnaire to see how dependent you are on nicotine. Knowing your degree of dependence will help your doctor determine the right treatment plan for you. The more cigarettes you smoke each day and the sooner you smoke after awakening, the more dependent you are.

Like most smokers, you've probably made at least one serious attempt to stop. But it's rare to stop smoking on your first attempt — especially if you try to do it without help. You're much more likely to be able to stop smoking if you use medications and counseling, which have both been proved effective, especially in combination.

Some quit-smoking products are known as nicotine replacement therapy because they contain varying amounts of nicotine. Some of these nicotine replacement therapies require a prescription, but others don't. There are two approved quit-smoking medications that don't contain nicotine, and both are available only by prescription.

Any of these products can help reduce nicotine cravings and withdrawal symptoms — making it more likely that you'll stop smoking for good. Using more than one may help you get better results.

Although you can buy some quit-smoking products without a prescription, it's a good idea to talk to your doctor first. Together you can explore which products might be right for you, when to start taking them and possible side effects.


Medications help you cope by reducing withdrawal symptoms and cravings, while behavioral treatments help you develop the skills you need to give up tobacco for good. The more time you spend with a counselor, the better your treatment results will be.

During individual or group counseling, you learn techniques you can use to help you stop smoking. Many hospitals, health care plans, health care providers and employers offer treatment programs. Some medical centers provide residential treatment programs — the most intensive treatment available.

All tobacco control measures require political commitment. Because the tobacco industry is far better funded and more politically powerful than those who advocate to protect children and non-smokers from tobacco and to help tobacco users quit, much more needs to be done by every country to reverse the tobacco epidemic. By taking action to implement the MPOWER policies, governments and civil society can create the enabling environment necessary to help people quit tobacco use. WHO, with the help of its global partners, stands ready to support Member States as they face the challenges ahead.

Mental Depression

Depression is a state of mental illness. It is characterized by deep, longlasting feelings of sadness or despair. Depression can change an individual’s thinking/feelings and also affects his/her social behaviour and sense of physical well-being. It can affect people of any age group, including young children and teens. It can run in families and usually starts between the ages of 15 and 30 years.

Women and elderly people are more commonly affected than men. There are several types of depression such as major depression it is a change in mood that lasts for weeks or months. It is one of the most severe types of depression.

Dysthymia (chronic depression) is a less severe form of depression but usually lasts for several years.

Psychotic depression a severe form of depression associated with hallucinations and delusions (feelings that are untrue or unsupported). Seasonal depression, occuring only at certain time of the year usually winter, also known as ‘winter blues’.


Depression is thought to be caused by an imbalance of certain brain chemicals called ‘neurotransmitters’ that carries signals in brain which the body uses to control mood. Some of the common factors that may cause depression are genetics (hereditary), trauma and high levels of stress, mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and substance abuse, postpartum depression (women may develop depression after the birth of the baby), serious medical conditions such as heart disease, cancer and HIV, use of certain medications, alcohol and drug abuse, individuals with low self-esteem, trauma and high levels of stress due to financial problems, breakup of a relationship or loss of a loved one.

Signs and Symptoms:

The signs and symptoms of depression include feeling of sadness and loneliness, loss of interest in activities once found enjoyable, feeling of hopelessness, worthlessness or excessive guilt, fatigue or loss of energy, sleeping too little or too much, loss of appetite, restlessness and being easily annoyed.


The doctor may diagnose depression based on the detailed history and sign and symptoms of the individual. Many a times the individual is asked a series of questions to help screen/check for depression symptoms. Specific examinations include physical examination of the individual such as height and weight measurement. Examination of the vital signs such as blood pressure, heart rate and temperature. Laboratory tests such as blood tests to screen for alcohol/drugs in blood. Psychological evaluation of the individual’s thoughts, feelings and behavior patterns.


The most common treatments of depression are –

  1. Counselling & Psychotherapy.
  2. Medication.
  3. Electroconvulsive therapy.

Counseling allows individuals to understand and accept the initial cause of depression. It can help address low self-esteem or relationship issues or persistent negative thinking.

Psychotherapy - For mild to moderate depression, psychotherapy may be the best treatment option. There are two main types of psychotherapy commonly used to treat depression. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) helps change negative ways of thinking and behaving. Interpersonal therapy (IPT) helps people understand and work through troubled personal relationships that may cause depression. Medications such as anti-depressants are given to help balance chemicals in the brain known as ‘neurotransmitters’.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is carried out in case the treatment with other therapies such as medications has failed. ECT is a procedure during which controlled amount of electricity is introduced into the brain in conjunction with anesthesia and muscle relaxant medications. It helps restore the balance of neurotransmitters by causing the brain to produce a mild generalized seizure (lasting for about 30 seconds).


If left untreated, depression can lead to some severe complications such as emotional, behavioural, health and even legal/financial problems, relationship difficulties, social isolation and even suicide.


Preventive measures include regular exercise, healthy diet and stable relationships. They are helpful in keeping stress low and thereby reduce the chances of feeling depressed again. The outcome of depression is usually favourable. With prompt treatment, a depressed person can return to a happier lifestyle and more balanced outlook on life.